As the number of cesarean sections in the U.S. continues to mount, so does the research showing that mothers and babies may be paying a high price for this surgery. Research published just in the last year has highlighted the short-term and long-term risks of undergoing a cesarean, for both mother and baby. Other research has called into question the assumed safety advantage of cesarean section over vaginal birth in various situations including vaginal birth after multiple cesareans and breech deliveries. Everything we know and continue to learn about cesareans supports more judicious use of the surgery, says Tonya Jamois but it is clear that the procedure is being overused. Major pieces of research released in 2006 showed that women who undergo cesareans versus women experiencing a vaginal birth have a higher risk of dying in childbirth, have a higher chance of suffering from potentially fatal placental problems in subsequent pregnancies, and their babies have a higher chance of being injured during surgery. The list of 15 studies that ICAN collected also shows that vaginal birth after cesarean, including multiple cesareans, continues to be a reasonably safe birthing choice for mothers.